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February 8, 2021
Viet Nam
Indonesia, and India
 are the leading producers of black pepper which is widely used for seasoning and as a spice. The plant is indigenous to the southern region of India, and it thrives in tropical climates. Since ancient times, black pepper has been renowned as a useful spice, and it spread from India through trade to the rest of the world.

top-black-pepper-producing-countries1

Top Black Pepper Producing Countries

Vietnam is the world leader in the cultivation and production of black pepper, with 148,744 hectares in 2018. It is a traditional crop of the country and 95% of the black pepper produced is for export mainly to the US, India, the Netherlands and Germany. India is the second largest producer with 138,566 hectares of planted land while Indonesia has 117.9 hectares. Other countries on the list are Sri Lanka (40.241 ha), Brazil (30.503 ha), Malaysia (17.437 ha).

Pepper area of the main producing countries in the world Unit: ha  
Year Brazil India Indonesia Malaysia Sri Lanka Viet Nam China Thailand Cambodia Others Total
2001 39.000 218.670 159.884  13.400 30.794 36.106 15.700 2.892   2.500 522.946
2002 41.000 222.460 160.606 13.1.00 31.387 42.000 16.000 2.890   3.000 536.434 
2003 50.000 223.060 184.000  13.000 31.970 48.800 17.000 2.800   3.000 577.630 
2004 45.000 231.880 171.000 13.000 32.437 50.000 18.000 2.800   3.000 571.117 
2005 40.000 231.800 150.000 12.700 24.739 50.000 19.000 2.800   3.000 538.039 
2006 35.000 253.730 140.000 12.235 29.156 50.000 20.000 2.800   3.000 549.921 
2007 32.857 236.180 113.002 13.023 29.910 50.000 16.625 2.787   3.000 501.384 
2008 29.549 196.297 114.570 13.487 30.156 50.000 16.567 2.060 700 3.000 459.686 
2009 27.415 181.299 113.683 13.608 30.528 50.000 16.749 2.142 800 3.000 442.424 
2010 23.263 182.000 110.620 15.000 30.931 51.000 17.498 1.991 850 3.000 439.303 
2011 21.089 189.100 110.900 15.000 31.926 52.500 16.568 1.210 900 3.000 444.663 
2012 19.427 196.200 112.850 14.791 31.667 54.500 17.125 734 1.500 3.000 454.924 
2013 18.472 197.000 113.000 15.000 31.997 61.500 17.425 412 2.300 3.000 461.806 
2014 20.000 198.000 115.000 16.000 31.296 85.500 18.188 412 2.700 3.000 492.390 
2015 22.110 198.500 116.000 16.300 31.670 97.500 19.000 500 4.600 3.000 507.460 
2016 25.660 131.790 117.000 16.700 34.997 105.000 20.000 500 6.100 3.000 517.220 
2017 27.730 134.280 117.500 17.000 36.221 151.982 20.000 500 6.700 3.000 458.731
2018 30.503 138.566 117.900 17.437 40.241 148.744 20.000 500 7.471 2.800 479.419
2019* 27.850         140.000          

Source: peppervietnam.com

Cultivation And Production Of Black Pepper

The pepper plant thrives in hot and humid tropical climates, and it can reach a height of 33 feet. However, under cultivation, the plant is restricted to a maximum height of 13 feet. The ideal annual rainfall for the plant is 200 cm while the temperatures range from 10 to 40 degrees Celsius. The plant grows well in soil rich in humus and well drained with a pH ranging from 5.0 to 6.5. Cultivation can either be done through cuttings or by use of seeds. Cuttings are preferred over seeds in commercial cultivation since they require a shorter period to grow. The pepper plant has a climbing nature and planting is done against a support such as a pole or a tree. After 3 to 4 years the plant bears small flowers on pendulous spikes. The fruits are produced in the fifth year, and harvesting commences once one or two fruits appear red which mostly happens after six or seven months. Handpicking is the common method of harvesting. The spikes are spread out in the sun until the berries shrivel and turn dark. The berries are then stripped off the spikes and are packaged as whole or in grounded form.


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